Thursday, March 19, 2020

Adult Mental Health And Professional Practice Social Work Essay Essays

Adult Mental Health And Professional Practice Social Work Essay Essays Adult Mental Health And Professional Practice Social Work Essay Essay Adult Mental Health And Professional Practice Social Work Essay Essay Within my assignment I will show my apprehension of mental wellness and the direct correlativity to my professional pattern. I will clearly specify and critically measure two of the dominant positions which are important in mental wellness theory and pattern, the biomedical and the societal causing position. By explicating my pattern with respects to the instance scenario 1 Ahmed, I will confirm my apprehension of both positions, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of each by sing how I might set about and assessment and how I might turn to issues identified from the instance scenario including the impact of favoritism and the importance of anti oppressive pattern. I will grounds my cognition and apprehension of relevant issues including reflecting the position of the person, by pulling up an intercession program, including placing clearly my apprehension of the legal model within which I would pattern. Issues of mental wellness are approached from a assortment of different positions and utilizing a assortment of different nomenclatures. Many have the greatest assurance in scientific or biological attacks, whilst others prefer more holistic or societal attacks. The biomedical medical theoretical account of mental wellness has been dominant merely because the dominant profession is psychopathology. Psychiatrists are medically trained and hence tend to see the chief intent behind their work as the diagnosing and intervention of unwellness or upset ( Rogers and Pilgrim,2005 ) .The simplistic position of cause and consequence whilst good if you have broken your leg or have diabetes, is non the same for mental unwellness. There are organic encephalon diseases or unwellnesss such as epilepsy and huntingdon s chorea which may attest in symptoms frequently associated with mental unwellness ( Rethink,2007 ) and therefore it is critical that the possibility of underlying physical causes are examined. The bio medical theoretical account utilises thoughts of a individual underlying cause and hence intervention of the cause will take to a return to the pre bing province ( Wade and Hallingan,2004 ) .Another premise is of a normal bing province, and hence an ability to mensurate grounds of abnormalcy therefore reasoning with a diagnosing. Traditional bio medical theoretical accounts focus on the pathology of the unwellness instead than understanding the unwellness whether it is biological, societal or psychological. Criticism of the biomedical theoretical account is that it is a simplistic theoretical account in a really complex sphere. Reductionist accounts of mental wellness cut down mental wellness issues to the smallest possible factors, simplistic but clearly flawed ( Crossley,2006 ) . One of the most prevailing statements is the engagement of environmental factors in determining our behavior. A individual s environment can determine their behavior and this is a changeless procedure. An person may be born with certain cistrons but environmental factors such as society and a individual s household can determine farther behavior ( Nettleton, 2006 ) . In cut downing a construct to its constituent parts and simplest footings many of import facets are overlooked. Individual factors are difficult to explicate under reductionism, because reductionist accounts generalise behavior. Each person is alone and responds otherwise. A reductionist account would be genetic sciences, but the same behavior in two people could be caused by separate environmental and biological factors and hence restricting the reductionist account ( Crossley,2006 ) . Reductionist accounts can be utile, by cut downing complicated constructs to their constituent parts but sometimes this offers a simple solution to an otherwise more complicated job. For illustration giving anti-depressants to person who is depressed may look like the most favorable solution, but this may overlook the existent job such as mourning, fiscal or work jobs. Iatrogenesis is another sphere that is debatable for the bio medical theoretical account. Iatrogenisis is frequently associated with inauspicious effects ensuing from medical intercessions ( Heller et al, 1996 ) but can and is viewed as the direct consequence of the intercession which impedes a individual s recovery, and hence could include psychopathology which is the prevailing force in the bio medical theoretical account. Labeling with respects to mental wellness diagnosing is another unfavorable judgment of the bio medical theoretical account. Scheff ( 1999 ) understands mental unwellness as a consequence of social labelling. Simplistic put, society has positions on what is socially norm and acceptable, any divergence from these norms, consequences in a label of mental unwellness. The societal causing theoretical account suggests links between societal disadvantage and mental wellness jobs. These societal disadvantages are prevelant in many countries instruction, wellness, employment, income and societal inclusion. Poverty and societal category have been determined as the two important factors of societal causing and the nexus to mental unwellness ( Murali and Oyebode, 2004 ) . Lynch et Al ( 1997 ) found people populating with fiscal troubles on a long-run footing, were much more likely to endure from clinical depression than those who did non. Studies into mental wellness suggest there are stressors associated with low position and this creates an environment for increased hazard of developing mental wellness jobs. Payne ( 1999 ) in the 1999 PSE survey provides grounds that people who live with assorted facets of poorness, want, unemployment and societal exclusion are more likely to hold mental wellness jobs, although the relationship between hapless mental wellness and these facets are complex. I will analyze employment in more item. Research shows that less than 40 % of employers would see using a individual with a mental wellness issue ( Rethink, 2009 ) .Consequently the bias and favoritism people face as a consequence of a mental wellness diagnosing nowadayss jobs in itself. In 2002/ 2003The Citizens Advice Bureau conducted research sing societal exclusion and mental wellness and their consequences were blunt. 60 % of people with mental wellness jobs gave up work as a consequence of favoritism, bias and stigma. 61 % per cent of male grownups with a psychiatric upset are in full-time or parttime employment. Whereas the figure is 75 % of work forces with no psychiatric upset ( Mind,2010b ) . If an person has maintained a occupation or found employment so if they are affected by backslidings this once more impacts financially. With these statistics in head it is clear to see that many who experience mental wellness issues will besides be affected by economic adversity. Populating on province benefits and sometime s less, as a consequence of an inflexible benefit system, can besides ensue in a barbarous circle of want and poorness in all facets of their lives, non merely economic but in wellness, societal activity and engagement. The societal causing theoretical account defined within the societal theoretical account demands to be understood by practicians as it acknowledges the experiences of persons, every bit good as being the springboard for disputing the socio political environment which contributes to societal jobs, which in bend impact on an person s mental wellness. This is cardinal for practicians as one of the cardinal functions of societal workers is to dispute and defend societal and political alteration ( Horner,2006 ) .According to Rogers and Pilgrim ( 2006 ) race, gender and age are all countries of disadvantage than can be investigated via societal causing. This would back up the findings of several surveies which highlight the relationship between some of the identified countries and hapless mental wellness. Examples to exemplify these links are, Irish work forces have three times higher psychiatric admittance rates than the general population ( Fitzptrick, 2005 ) ; adult females are more lik ely to be treated for mental wellness jobs than work forces ( Mental Health Foundation, no day of the month ) and in research by Beecham et Al ( 2008 ) it was identified that fewer than 10 % of older people with clinical depression were referred to specialist mental wellness services compared with approximately 50 % of younger grownups. These blunt derived functions question the footing of these statistical differences and one account is societal causing. In recent old ages at that place has been a displacement in Mental Health statute law. Although the Mental Health Act 1983 remains the primary statute law, there has been the add-on of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 which provides a legal model to protect persons who lack, or may miss capacity. The Mental Health Act 2007 amended the MHA 1983 and the MCA 2005. Along with these amendments to statute law at that place has besides been a extremist displacement in policy paperss from cardinal Government. These policy displacements demonstrate the demand to understand mental wellness in a more holistic context. The accent is switching from strictly medical positions with a acknowledgment of how the societal position has an impact on a individual s mental wellness good being. A overplus of policies from authorities such as Undertaking Health Inequalities ( DOH, 2001 ) ; Working Together UK Action Plan on Social Inclusion ( DWP, 2008 ) and Child Poverty Review ( H.M. Treasury,2004 ) have been designed to undertake societal inequalities such as wellness, income, work and instruction every bit good as a acknowledgment for the demand for more individual centred attacks to presenting services. This does non take away from the clear message from statute law that hazard and public safety are of paramount importance. The arguments about attention or control and rights versus hazard are of all time present peculiarly with high profile instances such as Christopher Clunis and Michael Stone were polar in the alterations to the Mental Health Act in 2007. The Mental Health Alliance ( 2006 ) maintain that legislative reforms which enables persons to entree services within the mental wellness sphere when they need it, as opposed to enforcing intervention, would be a more feasible option and turn to the issue of hazard in a more proactive manner. The Mental Health Act 1983 still remains the overarching statute law sing mental wellness in the England today and is the lone piece of statute law that permits the detainment of an person before they have committed an offense and strictly on the footing that they might present a menace to themselves or others ( Golightly,2008 ) .The alterations in 2007 allowed for sanctioned mental wellness professionals instead than the traditional sanctioned societal workers. One could reason that if this is obliteration of the societal worker function and the move to further medicalise mental wellness ( as the sanctioned mental wellness professional can be wellness background instead than societal attention ) . The Mental Capacity Act 2005 might be viewed by some as beliing the Mental Health Act 1983. After all a individual suspected of holding a mental unwellness may carry through the subdivision 3 trial of capacity under the Act, and under the rules of the act is able to do unwise determinations, but the Act makes no judicial admission sing these unwise determinations. Clearly perpetrating a condemnable offense is an unwise determination and a individual perpetrating the offense could clearly cognize and understand their action and face effects laid down under condemnable justness statute law. Under the Mental Health Act a individual is non required to hold committed an offense to be detained, a intuition of possible injury to self or others is adequate to justify a subdivision 2 appraisal for nonvoluntary admittance. This sphere has been addressed with and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 amendment to the Mental Health Act 1983 whereby an person can non decline intervention if that intervent ion is deemed necessary under the conditions of the Mental Health Act in that the MHA efficaciously overrides the MCA if the individual is or deemed to be mentally sick. This is a contradiction sing any other signifiers of medical intervention for a physical status such as intervention for malignant neoplastic disease or extremist surgery ( if a individual meets the capacity appraisal standards ) , a individual can decline intervention for any other physical wellness status but non for mental unwellness as a individual can be detained to mandatory dainty. New Horizons is a transverse authorities programme which was launched in 2000 which identified non merely the demand of improved mental wellness services but the acknowledgment the importance of keeping good mental wellness and good being for everyone and screens childhood to old age ( DOH,2009 ) . It clearly recognises the impact of societal factors taking to turn to societal inequalities placing wellness, instruction and employment as of import factors in an person s well being and the impact on mental wellness. The Mental Health Act 1983 is the primary statute law which covers the appraisal, detainment, intervention and rights of people with a mental wellness status. Following the psychiatric theoretical account the practician would necessitate to do an appraisal of Ahmed s operation place the marks and symptoms which he is exhibiting for Ahmed these would be his twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours working he has rent arrears, public-service corporations have been cut off ; personal attention grounds suggests he lives on takeouts ; societal operation he is a lone wolf and he goes into the town Centre shouting seemingly aggressive ; ideas he appears to be holding psychotic beliefs that his female parent is non his existent female parent, and perchance hallucinations evidenced with him shouting, but non directed at anyone. The psychiatric theoretical account uses opinions of normal which are non nonsubjective, but on in agreement criterions of normal within a cultural and societal context ( Esyenck,1994 and Giddens,1997 ) . But the inquiry has to be who is the prevailing force in that society and how does this impact on persons from differing cultural backgrounds in the nipple of normalcy. Although the instance survey has non specified Ahmed s cultural background it is an country which needs due consideration. There are treatments sing psychopathology as being coloring material blind and civilization blind . Fernando ( 2002 ) examines the principle for these constructs in relation to hearing voices, and explains possibly cultural stereotypes which do non see multi cultural dimensions are responsible. Fernando ( 2002 ) draws upon the surveies associating to high proportions of British African Caribbean work forces being labelled as aggressive, possibly due to the visual aspect or reading of symptoms taking others to specify the symptoms within the mental wellness sphere ( Nazroo and King, 2002 ) . Fernando ( 2002 ) expounds farther by explicating this could besides be related to society norms. The norms are dictated by the predominant forces within society. When persons do non conform to societal norms they are capable to countenances in order to guarantee conformance this is apparent within the legal justness system a individual commits a offense a penalty a all right or community ser vice order or prison sentence is served. The analogues for mental wellness could be seen that if a individual does non conform so admittance to infirmary, intercession and intervention may be viewed as the countenances to diverting from those perceived norms. Risk direction is a extremely politicised country with the primary aim in the political sphere to pull off hazard, whilst improved results for persons appears to be in secondary ( Holloway,1996 ) . Holloway ( 1996 ) goes on to state in order to understand and hence pull off the hazard so as a practician you need a really elaborate apprehension of the person. Good pattern sing hazard direction is about a clear foundation for the determination and an outlook for the proposed result, every bit good as proviso for alteration if the intended result does non happen ( Petch,2001 ) . A treatment with Ahmed sing voluntary admittance for appraisal and intervention would be deemed appropriate given the appraisal. The Mental Health Act 1983 clearly provinces in subdivision 131 that voluntary admittance should ever be used if the individual is willing. Should Ahmed defy intervention and admittance to hospital so it would be necessary to turn to the demand for detainment under subdivision 2 of the act. This proviso is made with the understanding of 2 physicians ideally one who knows Ahmed possibly his GP, and an sanctioned mental wellness professional ( AMHP ) . Under the Mental Health Act 1983 subdivision 2 allows nonvoluntary admittance to infirmary for appraisal and intervention. Under subdivision 2 Ahmed does non hold the right to decline intervention. Once Ahmed is admitted to hospital so appraisal for a diagnosing would be paramount. The two diagnostic and categorization tools used in modern psychopathology are the DSM IV codifications and ICD 10 codifications ( Bolton, 2008 ) . Although there are differences in these codifications, the premiss for these codifications and results are the same. These codifications represent the bio medical theoretical account, the decrease of the unwellness to marks and symptoms to which a head-shrinker can find a diagnosing and intervention based on that diagnosing. Whilst this may be utile for organic encephalon upsets for the bulk of mental wellness jobs where there is no unequivocal biological status, the diagnosing merely reflects the person s contemplations on how they think and feel. The intervention program would be developed based on the assessment result ( diagnosing ) . Often intervention scopes are limited with a high accent on drug intercessions, where the primary aim is to brace Ahmed s mental wellness status in an attempt to return him to a functional province. This medicalised response and the usage of drugs could be viewed as a agency of societal control ( Rogers and Pilgrim, 2005 ) . By pulling on the theory of societal causing this would enable me to back up Ahmed to analyze the issues he is confronting in a non judgemental manner. Oppression and favoritism is observed in the lives of people from marginalised groups ( Dalrymple and Burke,1995 ) and as practicians we have an duty to dispute favoritism and subjugation. Personal experiences are clearly associated with societal, cultural, political and economic divisions and hence understanding these countries in context to the person is critical in understanding and disputing the subjugation and favoritism they may meet ( Adams et al, 2002 ) . The stigma attached from holding mental wellness jobs can non be underestimated. Research by the Department of Health Attitudes to Mental Illness in 2007 showed that whilst many of the negative pre conceived thoughts and beliefs held by society about people with a mental wellness unwellness were decreasing, but the alterations twelvemonth on twelvemonth were non important. T his may be due to instruction and apprehension of mental unwellness and the apprehension of the effects of favoritism and stigma. The Time to Change Programme ( 2008 ) is by its ain admittance, nationally and globally the most ambitious program to stomp out favoritism faced by people with mental unwellness. Stigma poses a menace to all facets of an person s life if diagnosed with a mental unwellness, they contribute to societal isolation, hurt and troubles deriving and keeping employment. In a study by Crisp and Gelder ( 2000 ) discovered there were consistent subjects of perceptual experiences of people who had a mental unwellness. Some positions were common amongst the several diagnosings, viz. they were hard to speak to and they were unpredictable to premises of being unsafe. Completing a Community Care Assessment in conformity with the NHS and Community Care Act 1990 would be necessary in order to place Ahmed s demands and how those demands would be best provided for. The appraisal would include information from Ahmed every bit good as important others where applicable and determine demand on a short and / or long term footing ( Sharkey, 2007 ) . The appraisal does non take away from the demand of some immediate intercession, to work straight with Ahmed to turn to some of the immediate issues such as his rent arrears ( which would instantly cut down the menace of eviction ) and acquiring his public-service corporation services back in topographic point. Acute and crisis services and intercession were designed to offer support in a less restrictive and stigmatizing manner than traditional formal of intercession such as mandatory admittance ( Golightly,2008 ) . Crisis intercession is a theoretical account of intercession which ideally prevents the state of affairs from deteriorating farther and physiques on bing resources and strengths in order to better the state of affairs ( Ferguson,2008 ) . This could help Ahmed s mental wellness and good being every bit good as his environment and other societal factors i.e. relationship with Dendranthema grandifloruom and neighbors. The intercession allows a recent Cochrane reappraisal found that place attention crisis intervention, coupled with an on-going place attention bundle, was a feasible option to hospital admittance for crisis intercession for people with serious mental unwellnesss and likely more cost effectual ( Joy at Al, 2006 ) . Working straight with Ahmed utilizing a undertaking centred attack would be ideal as it is a really practical based attack. The work is clip limited, structured and job focused ( Parker and Bradley, 2007, p.93 ) . An illustration for Ahmed might be: Result: Pay off rent arrears so no longer in debt. Rationale: this would instantly cut down the hazard of eviction every bit good as promoting Ahmed to take duty for his state of affairs in a supportive and empowering manner. Stairss: Agree a payment program with Ahmed that is manageable within current budget ( ?10 every 2 hebdomads ) Once program agreed Ahmed to see lodging supplier to hold payment program and bespeak an update every month on arrears. Pick up benefits every 2 hebdomads, on a Tuesday, and instantly pay 2 hebdomads rent at paypoint in station offices along with in agreement ?10 arrears and obtain reception. For the intent of this assignment I have listed some of the actions which could be identified in order to back up Ahmed. Pay off rent arrears. Benefits appraisal to guarantee Ahmed is claiming his benefit entitlement. Tenancy support worker in order to back up with occupancy related issues such as rent, public-service corporations and keeping a occupancy understanding. Support worker to help with increasing his contact and cut down societal isolation. This could be merely traveling out for a java or some other activity which Ahmed identified. To research if Ahmed has concerns sing psychopathology, and his reluctance to run into with the head-shrinker this is critical it may merely be he bury about the assignment or farther issues sing his construct of psychopathology. To work with Ahmed to research his ideas sing his female parent and measure the foundation for his ideas that she is non his female parent. To derive understanding on any other important relationships in the yesteryear ( there is reference in the instance survey of kids ) and the possibility of re-connection with his kids and wider household connexions. Re-connection with community whether this would be using self aid groups, categories which may keep a peculiar involvement or active battle in community/ voluntary undertakings to construct self esteem and assurance and develop a sense of intent and battle. Explore developing / employment options To back up Ahmed to get down a life narrative book or see psychological science intercession. To offer support to analyze Ahmed s current schemes of get bying recognizing his abilities through the strength theoretical account and back uping him to place any forms and how to cover with them. To develop a contract for future work in order to be clear of professional boundaries and outlooks from both parties and how intercession might look in the hereafter should this be required. Should the fortunes non better or go on to deteriorate so there is a possibility of seeking infirmary admittance either, voluntarily or in conformity with the Mental Health Act 1983. More people than of all time are being detained in infirmary under compulsory orders. Admissions to hospital under the Mental Health Act 1983 have risen by about 30 % in the past decennary in England. Harmonizing to a study from three national mental wellness charities, Rethink, Sane and the Zito Trust, this figure is a distressing contemplation of the attention for people with mental unwellness ( Kmietowicz, 2004 ) . A sobering idea for any professional. As a practician I have learnt that causes of mental wellness issues are frequently complex and can affect a combination of biological exposure, environmental factors, societal stressors, societal webs, supports and relationships, psychological orientations and learned behaviors. Coppock and Hopton ( 2000 ) province: each position on mental hurt and curative intercession has its ain internal logic ( p.175 ) and emphasize the importance of recognizing the options, otherwise, practicians are in danger of going a stiff in their patter n, non work in a individual centred manner. Having a critical position and apprehension of the assortment of theoretical positions and attacks sing mental wellness is good. It is clear that these positions whether biomedical or societal have added to our apprehension of mental wellness. The comparative virtues of the assorted positions are invariably argued, most characteristically by indicating out the restrictions of the differing positions. Such reviews can be productive but are merely a measure in a larger undertaking to develop broader positions that can be fruitfully integrate the different utile penetrations reached from each of a assortment of different points of position. A individual centred attack to mental wellness would look the optimal attack when analyzing mental wellness issues. It recognises the singularity of persons and histories for all the possible variables and their interactions from societal causing, emphasis exposure, gender etc. which would enable practicians to analyze issues within a broader holistic context, alternatively of stiff simplistic procedures of bio medical theoretical account ( Freeth, 2007 ) . Word Count: 4007

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The Presidents Cabinet - Agencies and Secretaries

The Presidents Cabinet - Agencies and Secretaries Clearly one of the most popular homework assignments in America Name the presidents Cabinet. The Cabinet-level departments are listed here in order of presidential succession. Department of State Secretary of State:  Mike PompeoWeb Address: Department of Treasury Secretary of the Treasury:  Steven MnuchinWeb Address: Department of Defense Secretary of Defense: Dr. Mark T. EsperWeb Address: Department of Justice Attorney General  William P. BarrWeb Address: Department of Interior Acting Secretary of the Interior David BernhardtWeb Address: Department of Agriculture (USDA) Secretary of Agriculture:  Sonny  Perdue IIIWeb Address: Department of Commerce Secretary of Commerce:  Wilbur L. Ross, Jr.Web Address: Department of Labor Secretary of Labor:  Deputy Secretary of Labor Patrick PizzellaWeb Address: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary of Health and Human Services:  Alex AzarWeb Address: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Secretary of Housing and Urban Development:Ben CarsonWeb Address: Department of Transportation (DOT) Secretary of Transportation:  Elaine ChaoWeb Address: Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary of Energy:  Rick PerryWeb Address: Department of Education Secretary of Education: Betsy DeVosWeb Address: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Acting VA Secretary Robert WilkieWeb Address: Department of Homeland Security Secretary of Homeland Security (Acting Secretary Kevin McAleenan)Web Address: Note: While not officially part of the Cabinet, the following positions currently have Cabinet-rank status:White House Chief of StaffAdministrator of the Environmental Protection AgencyDirector of the Office of Management BudgetUnited States Trade RepresentativeUnited States Ambassador to the United NationsChairman of the Council of Economic AdvisersAdministrator of the Small Business Administration More About the Cabinet Why is it called cabinet? When did it first meet? How much do the secretaries make, who picks them and how long do they serve?

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Computations Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Computations - Assignment Example The actual vehicle operating cost for the month was $6,330. The vehicle operating cost in the planning budget for December would be closest to: 14: Ofarrell Snow Removal’s cost formula for its vehicle operating cost is $1,840 per month plus $377 per snow-day. For the month of November, the company planned for activity of 14 snow-days, but the actual level of activity was 19 snow-days. The actual vehicle operating cost for the month was $9,280. The vehicle operating cost in the flexible budget for November would be closest to: 15: Raymond Electronics Corporation has a standard cost system in which it applies manufacturing overhead to products on the basis of standard machine-hours (MHs). The company had budgeted its fixed manufacturing overhead cost at $42,700 for the month and its level of activity at 2,000 MHs. The actual total fixed manufacturing overhead was $44,100 for the month and the actual level of activity was 1,800 MHs. What was the fixed manufacturing overhead budget variance for the month to the nearest dollar? 21: Glassett Corporation is considering a project that would require an investment of $62,000. No other cash outflows would be involved. The present value of the cash inflows would be $70,060. The profitability index of the project is closest

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Fences, a play by August Wilson Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fences, a play by August Wilson - Research Paper Example This huge disenchantment sets the tone of the play. Troy is a tragic figure beset with waves of bad fortune, a victim of his time but as much his own fault. Troy’s tragic life is made more poignant by the author painting him as a tragic hero. Troy’s myopic interpretation of things and his unwillingness to adapt to reality are his two biggest flaws, blinding him and leading to his ultimate undoing. Troy is presented with opportunities to make peace with the other characters and redeem himself at critical crossroads but sadly he chose to remain in his fabricated world and his tragedy. The onset of act one, scene one provides the context of the big disenchantment in Troy’s life, that of his thwarted dream, resulting in his leading a mundane existence as a garbage collector. Troy has once been a promising baseball player in his prime, but he has been stripped of his chance to make it big in the Major Leagues because of his color. Troy could not reconcile with the fac t that he is too old to play in the Leagues when it finally opened up to black players and this residual bitterness and resentment distorted most of Troy’s perspective on things and people and reinforced his belief that he is a victim of his time. Despite this, Troy has never let go of his identity as a ball player. He continues to use baseball jargons to reflect his world view as in act one, scene one where he says â€Å"Death ain’t nothing but as fastball on the outside corner.† To his credit, Troy has fought back to emerge as a literary hero at the beginning of the play, where the other characters seem to revere him as the sole provider for the family and a fighter for equality at work. Troy’s flaws, however work against him. His narrow-minded perception has evolved into a dual set of standards over time in judging himself and others. This can be seen in Troy carrying himself around with excessive importance as the breadwinner but belittles of the work and accomplishment of others as in act one, scene three, â€Å"I do the best I can do. I come in here every Friday, I carry a sack of potatoes†¦you all line up with your hands stretched out at the door†¦I give you my sweat and my blood I ain’t got no tears†. To Troy, elder son Lyons’ chosen vocation as a jazz musician is simply a stunt in playing â€Å"Chinese music† and not serious work. Troy deduces this as the reason Lyons returns home to borrow money from him. As for Cory, his break into professional football hits a raw nerve in Troy’s thwarted dream. Troy could not accept that times have changed for black sportsman and Cory could actually make a career out of it. Cory brings up the achievement of black players like Clemente and Aaron and Kouflax, but Troy deflates their contributions. When Troy is losing out his argument to Cory, he throws the punch line, â€Å"I ain’t no Sandy Kouflax† in act one, scene three.. Instea d, he wants Cory to stay at a job instead of pursuing football. Cory’s giving away his job at A&P supermarket is seen by Troy as an act of defiance against him. Troy therefore imposes his authoritative presence on Cory in act one, scene three where he sabotages Cory’s opportunity by telling Cory’s coach that he can no longer play on his team. Troy’s shortsightedness prevents him from seeing the further ramifications of his act. Troy reasons that by sabotaging Cory’s chance would teach his son to obey his wishes. Instead it has set the wheels to motion to

Saturday, January 25, 2020

A Case Analysis Of Apple Inc Business Essay

A Case Analysis Of Apple Inc Business Essay The purpose of this paper is to explain the definition of Strategic Management and why it is critical to the success of an organization in meeting its goals and mission. The paper will include a brief analysis of the situation and pending decision problem, as presented in the case and in relevance to the answer. In addition, the major issues will be surrounding the organization or individuals involved with the organization. Included will be alternate courses of action to address the issues identified. Next, will be the decision or recommendation for action, with the appropriate supporting arguments if any. Statement of the Problem(s): Thousands of people were laid off at Apple, Inc. It does not look like Apple, Inc. spent much time working on its management and marketing strategies from the beginning. It was not until better marketers such as Jobs and Sculley came into the picture, before the company started to expand to better markets with acquisitions and joint ventures. The problem was not changing their strategy sooner. The jobs are what contribute to a companys effectiveness (Mello, 2011, p. 115) and if they kept their employees it might have contributed to earlier success. It is human capital that helps companies to strive. For Apple, Inc. to lay off employees to help their financial statement for stakeholders may have been part of the cause of the problem (Yoffie Slind, 2008). Their mission statement should have answered the question about what is strategic management, and why is it critical to the success of an organization in meeting its goals and mission statement? Summary of the Facts: According to research done by Yoffie and Slind, (2008) Apple, Inc. started out with a great product line to reach the computer market. Then they advanced to the iPod, iTunes and the 3G network in order to advance their technology into the competitive marketplace. They became the industry leader under Wozniak with the new Macintosh. However, their technology was slow. They did not beat their competitors during this stage. Sculley added desktop publishing, which focused on the educational market which sold at top price. Because Sculley was good at marketing he was able to hit the market with the personal assistants gadgets. The smartest move Apple made was to form a joint venture with its competitor. Products dropped and IBM and Apple parted but they were just starting to learn the joint venture game. When Steve Jobs came on board the company went through reorganization and many people lost their jobs. Microsoft invested one hundred and fifty million dollars just after Microsoft Office was formed. Then iMac went out to three hundred million and Apples image was back on track again. Their marketing strategy was to differentiate themselves from other competitors. Apple, Inc. had great designs under Steve Jobs with Microsofts cooperation. However, Acer and Dell were catching up with the new Intel processors and Windows 7 emerged. Apples smartest move was the iPod with music. However, Amazon was the companys newest threat. The end result was the iPhone reaching the smartphone market. They reached all heights by finally changing their game, by reaching seventy percent of the U.S. market. In addition, the iPhone 3G reached twenty-two markets (Yoffie Slind, 2008, p. 22). Definition: The elements of a strategy consist of arenas so the company knows where the main operations will be and core technologies used (Mello, 2011, p. 131). The next step in setting up the companys strategy is the vehicle they will use to achieve their goals? Third, is differentiation on how they can beat their competitors in the high-tech world? Fourth, is the staging management strategy of what products they plan on using? Lastly, is the companys economics in deciding how much to charge or to decide if their product is hard to market. In addition, there are different stages of technological change. The fast growth stage is when the product starts with a concept and then has fast innovation. The Wild, Wild West stage is also fast innovation but for smaller companies taking risks. The consolidators are in the steady evolution stage that are in the mature life cycle and use economies of scale. Lastly in the creative destruction stage there is new knowledge and competencies and the company se eks other industries to joint venture (Mello, 2011, p. 145). Analysis: Apple, Inc. started out as a concept driver when they reached new market showing fast growth in the beginning. Then, they came up with new knowledge and competencies as concept learners. They were also pioneers in the industry showing fast innovation. They reached a mature life cycle with economies of scale when they had to widen their product lines. Apple, Inc. went through all the stages of technological change. However, in the fast growth stage they were not prepared for what lay ahead, so they had to come up with different strategies to have the competitive advantage. Every stage requires development of their employees and more financing resources (Mello, 2011). Recommendations: According to (Mello, 2011), Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) and the Resource-Based View (RBV) organizations need to hire employees that are motivated and have a highly trained skills to help the company have a competitive advantage (p. 119). Core competencies are shared throughout the organization collaboratively. This knowledge connects strategy and SHRM (p. 125). The systems need to comprise of human, social and organization capital, and it is through this creation and integration working together that the company can remain a success. This should have been done in the very beginning in their formation of strategy planning and origination of their mission statement. Moreover, recommendations for the company in the future is to make it part of their strategic management goal to do a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis year. A SWOT analysis should have been done in the beginning of their strategic mission, so they would have known the threats that lay ahead. This is normally done with their marketing management department. If all of the departments were integrated to work together interchangeably using core competencies, they would have foreseen what lay ahead. Whenever a company has fast growth such as in Apple, Inc.s fast growth stage, the company takes the risk of competitors striving to take over the marketplace with better high technological products (Mello, 2011). Consequently, their strategic management mission and goals should have included a plan for when there was overkill in the marketplace. Apple, Inc. would make a smart move to find ways to have employee retention and to beat the competition with continuous new innovative products. It is by keeping employees and training them they can come up with new ideas and sustain their growth in the future. They can stay ahead of the competition by having some low-cost items such as music downloads and higher cost for their other products. Apple, Inc. should use some of their new revenue towards research and development to design new innovations for tomorrows customers (Mello, 2011, p. 152). According to Zhouying Ying (2011), strategic management problems in the past with organizations were because they lacked integration. Apple, Inc. should have used sustainable and long-term development in their strategy for tracking, management and feedback otherwise long-term goals are harder to achieve (p. 49). Apple, Inc. failed to pay attention to its economy and financial resources needed in the beginning. However, they did sustain growth in the later stages of the company. Now they need to sustain their growth through continuous integration and coordination (p. 50). The goals need to consist with development for the long-term and to focus on the external environment. Strategic goals need to be achieved from the bottom up and the top down (p. 53) in their vision. Apple, Inc. needs to continue to inspire and motivate their new employees by giving them a support system to reach their vision and goals that are achievable. Conclusion The case analysis consisted of a statement of the problem showing a brief analysis of the situation and decision problem. The analysis included the major issues surrounding the organization and individuals involved. The alternate courses of action were identified in the recommendations, which showed strategies needed to sustain growth and development in a high-tech environment. The main strategy is to maintain and inspire their employees to continue with growth in this fast-pace environment.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Plantation and Oral Tradition in Margaret Walker’s Jubilee Essay

Margaret Walker’s novel Jubilee focuses on the life of a slave girl by the name of Vyry who gains her freedom at the end of the Civil War and sets out with her children, Minna and Jim, and husband, Innis Brown, to make a new life for their family in the Reconstruction Period. Walker’s awareness of the southern plantation tradition is made clear throughout Jubilee in the way that she debunks the negative tropes placed on the shoulders of African Americans by the nostalgic white writers of the South; Walker also incorporates her knowledge of black oral tradition by way of small snippets of text on every page which marks the start of a new chapter in the text. The first section of Jubilee covers the antebellum years, before the Civil War ripped the southern United States apart. Traditionally, a plantation narrative is narrated from the perspective of a slave, frequently portrayed as â€Å"happier and better off under slavery than they would be if they were free† and established the stereotypical â€Å"happy darky† (Campbell). â€Å"The happy-go-lucky darky images of the antebellum South could be contrasted favorably to the images of impoverished, potentially dangerous blacks of post-Reconstruction.† (Warren, 119).Walker fractures this trope by incorporating her ancestors’ harsh treatment on a real plantation. The plantation tradition has the enslaved narrator holding the plantation in high esteem, as if it were a golden utopia, when in reality slaves face inevitable punishment and death; they are neither happy nor enjoying the treatment delivered to them by their masters. Walker shows this through the story arc of Lucy, one of Master John’s slaves and friend of Vyry. Lucy tries to escape, but is caught and branded with an â€Å"R† on her face for â€Å"runaway.† Determined to take her freedom into her own hands, she learns to cover her mark with makeup, â€Å"a mixture of yellow ochre, red clay, and charcoal, until it had blended into her skin† (Walker, 127). Lucy runs away again, and is successful in reaching the free North. Even when slaves do stay on the plantation and follow orders, they are still vulnerable to abuse from their overseers. Plantation tradition usually upholds the Master’s orders in a place of highest priority, another trope that Walker breaks in Jubilee. Shortly after Lucy ran away the second time, Master John had â€Å"plainly told [Uncle Plato and Uncle Esau] and Mr. Grimes that they were not to go into the fields anymore† (Walker, 132) because they  were too old for that kind of hard labor. Grimes, the overseer, went against Master John’s decision again and ordered them both back out into the fields. â€Å"In less than an hour in the blazing sun the two old men had collapsed in the fields, overcome by the heat and unaccustomed exertion† (Walker, 133). Uncle Plato and Uncle Esau took refuge in an abandoned slave cabin that was burned down while the two men were sleeping. â€Å"There was a big mix-up over whether [Grimes] actually ordered his guards to burn that particular house or another† (Walker, 134), but Master John and the rest of the slaves did not believe that it was an accident. After these usurpations and his wife Salina’s casual brushing-off of Master John’s claim to authority on the plantation, Caline observes that â€Å"his say-so don’t amount to nothing† (Walker, 136). Margaret Walker’s use of the black oral tradition crops up throughout Jubilee in the way she incorporates spirituals, sayings, prayers, and hymns into the beginning page of each chapter. One of the main purposes of oral tradition is to pass down the history of the race, since there were no written history books for their culture. â€Å"The oral tradition of the African societies and the necessity for oral traditions as a result of the slave system has helped the Black culture survive† (Staggers). History books talk of slaves singing spirituals and hymns in the fields as a way to boost morale, and it was common practice, even enforced by law, for slaveholders to not grant their slaves an education, resulting in a slave’s inability to read and write. Walker uses snippets from such songs or texts to foreshadow the theme or struggle of their respective chapters. When Brother Zeke first speaks of God sending them a Moses, that chapter’s quote is â€Å"When Israel was in Egypt’s land / let my people go / Oppress’d so hard they could not stand / let my people go† (Walker, 18). Walker would also write Aunt Sally singing when she was working in the kitchens of the Big House. â€Å"When Aunt Sally was deeply troubled, she opened her mouth and raised a real wailing song over he r cooking† (Walker, 71). If slaves ever spoke out against their masters, they would face extremely harsh punishment and perhaps even death. Most of the people in the Big House would not recognize the singing as Aunt Sally expressing her discontent, but rather see it as just making noise. The oral tradition offers a freedom of expression that is disregarded and seldom if ever over-analyzed by the white oppressors they were singing out against. Through these songs and prayers igniting each new chapter of the rise and  fall of the Confederacy through Vyry’s eyes, and the destruction of the tropes distorting the harsh reality of slavery throughout the entirety of Jubilee, Margaret Walker creates an accurate and emotional story that proves her knowledge of the literary traditions surrounding the truth of her ancestors that southern writer after writer in the Reconstruction Period had strived to suppress. Works Cited 1. Campbell, Donna M. â€Å"The Plantation Tradition in Local Color Fiction. â€Å"Literary Movements. Dept. of English, Washington State University. 07/04/2013. Web. 09/03/2013. 2. Staggers, Gail. â€Å"Talkin’ Loud: Black Oral Tradition.† Yale-New Haven Teachers’ Institute. Web. 09/04/2013. 3. Walker, Margaret. â€Å"Jubilee.† New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1966. Print. 4. Warren, Kenneth W. â€Å"Black and White Strangers: Race and American Literary Realism.† Black Literature and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1995. Print.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Tricky Masculine Nouns in German

German is a pretty rule-heavy language but as with any rules, there are always exceptions. In this article, well dive into masculine nouns that have irregular endings. Masculine Nouns Ending in e Most German nouns ending in -e are feminine. But there are some very common e-ending masculine nouns — sometimes referred to as weak nouns. Many of them derived from adjectives. Here are a few common examples: der alte: old mander beamte: civil servantder deutsche: male Germander Franzose: Frenchmander fremde: strangerder gatte: male spouseder kollege: colleagueder kunde: customerder junge: boyder riese: giantder verwandte: relative Almost all such masculine nouns ending in -e (der Kà ¤se being a rare exception) add an -n ending in the genitive and plural. They also add an -n ending in any case other than the nominative — for example, the accusative, dative, and genitive cases (den/dem kollegen, des kollegen). But there are a few more variations on this ending theme. Some Masculine Nouns Add ens in the Genitive Another small group of German masculine nouns ending in -e requires an unusual ending in the genitive case. While most German masculine nouns add -s or -es in the genitive, these nouns add -ens instead. This group includes​: der  name/des namens: of the nameder glaube/des glaubens: of the beliefder buchstabe/des buchstabens: of the letter, referring to the alphabetder friede/des friedens: of the  peaceder funke/des funkens: of the sparkder same/des samens: of the seedder wille/des willens: of the  will Masculine Nouns Referring to Animals, People, Titles, or Professions This group of common masculine nouns includes some that end in -e (der là ¶we, lion), but there are also other typical endings: -ant (der kommandant), -ent (der prà ¤sident), -r (der bà ¤r), -t (der architekt). As you can see, these German nouns often resemble the same word in English, French, or other languages. For nouns in this group, you need to add an -en ending in any case other than the nominative: Er sprach mit dem Prà ¤sidenten. (dative) Nouns That Add -n, -en   Some nouns add an n, en, or another ending in any case other than the nominative.   (AKK.) Kennst du den Franzosen? Do you know the Frenchman? (DAT.) Was hat sie  dem  Jungen  gegeben? What did she give the boy? (GEN.) Das ist der Name des Herrn. Thats the gentlemans name. Other Irregular German Masculine Nouns Endings shown are for (1) the genitive/accusative/dative and (2) the plural. der alte:  old man (-n, -n)der architekt:  architect (-en, -en)der automat: vending machine (-en, -en)der bà ¤r  bear: (-en, -en) Often  des bà ¤rs  in informal genitive usage.der bauer:  farmer, peasant; yokel (-n, -n)der beamte:  civil servant (-n, -n)der bote:  messenger (-n, -n)der bursche:  boy, lad; fellow, guy (-n, -n)der Deutsche:  male German (-n, -n)der einheimische:  native, local (-n, -n)der erwachsene:  adult (-n, -n)der Franzose: Frenchman (-n, -n)der fremde:  stranger (-n, -n)der fà ¼rst:  prince (-en, -en)der  gatte:  male spouse (-n, -n)der gefangene:  prisoner (-n, -n)der gelehrte:  scholar (-n, -n)der graf:  count (-en, -en)der heilige:  saint (-n, -n)der held:  hero (-en, -en)der herr:  gentleman, lord (-n, -en)der hirt:  herdsman (-en, -en)der kamerad:  comrade (-en, -en)der  kollege:  colleague (-n, -n)der kommandant:  commander (-en, -en)der kunde:  customer (-n, -n)der là ¶we:  lion; Leo (astrol.) ( -n, -n)der mensch:  person, human being (-en, -en)der nachbar:  neighbor (-n, -n) Often the -n ending is only used in the genitive singular.der junge:  boy (-n, -n)der kà ¤se:  cheese (-s, -)  The plural is usually  kà ¤sesorten.der planet:  planet (-en, -en)der prà ¤sident:  president (-en, -en)der prinz:  prince (-en, -en)der riese: giant (-n, -n)der soldat:  soldier (-en, -en)der tor:  fool, idiot (-en, -en)der verwandte:  relative (-n, -n) A final comment about these special masculine nouns. In common, everyday German (casual versus more formal register), the genitive -en or -n endings are sometimes replaced by an -es or -s. In some cases, the accusative or dative endings are also dropped.